Tuesday, June 5, 2007

Annotation #8

Animal Liberation

Peter Singer describes how most humans are speciesists. This means most humans allow that their taxes to pay for the experimentation of other “lower” species as long as they are not being performed on their own kind. The scientists save their conscience by saying that animals are equipment used in their experiments.

Annotation #7

Cures and Creatures Great and Small

People against animal experimentations argue that it’s a not moral, evil action that should be stopped. Jeremy Bentham asks “can they reason, talk or feel pain?” Answer is yes they do and can. Scientists that use rats say they have a similar nervous system to humans. Pain is an evil that should not be placed on a child, adult or animal. People that wish to continue experimenting say that society has an obligation to minimize harm and to maximize benefits. Stopping would result in bad consequences. Even though scientists try to minimize pain by using pain killers, those sometime interrupt with results so they can not always be used. They say the benefits out weigh the suffering of animals. Experimenting produces good results even at the cost of inflicting pain on animals.

Saturday, April 28, 2007

Annotation #6

Article: Alternatives: Testing Without Torture

Alternatives to animal testing are more efficient and reliable becuase there are no species differences. They take less time and are generaly less costly.
Types include embyronic stem cell test, which uses mouse cells to assess the toxicity of embryos, 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test, that uses culture grown cells to test sunlight irritation on skin, EpiDerm test, that replaces rabbits for the skin corrosion test.

Thursday, April 26, 2007

Annotation #5 **

Article: Guilt-Free Beauty

In 2001 cosmetic industries were not required to test their makeup before it went to the shelf, but they were urged to do so to protect the safety of humans. Rats and mice are a majority (85-90%) of the animals used to test make up on. Rabbits, Guinea pigs and hamsters come in second, and then dogs, cats and non human primates are 1% of the tested animals. 73% of the testing done on animals are done for consumer testing.
Although animal testing has been reduced almost 90% since 1980, there is still alot more that can be reduced. Companies mainly do not switch to other testing methods because its cheaper on animals, and the lack of confidence in testing other ways.
Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement.
Other testing options:
Caenorhabditis elegans- reliable in testing toxicity. Cultured human skin- actual human skin grown to test toxicity. Eyetex- eliminates Draize eye test by using in vitro (test tube). Skintex- In Vitro that measures human skin irritancy. Corrositex-measured skin corrosion and eliminates animal testing all together, synthetic skin model.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Annotations #4

Article: Going Green The Beuauty industry is finally realizing that consumers don't just want organic coffee and carrots, they want ethical cosmetics, too.

Going green in the cosmetics industry is more expensive but with the rise in ethical consumers it is in high demand. Going green means using biodegradeable products, but also using ethical means in making the cosmetics, like no animal testing. Companies such as Suki Kramer (Suki Pure Skin Care) and Rich Hippie (perfume) are cruelty free when testing their cosmetics. A vegan friendly cosmetics line has recently been made called B Never Too Busy To Be Beautiful. Yes, it is more expensive, but it is worth it.

Annotation #3

Article: Ask the Doc; What are alternatives to animal testing?

Non animal testing methods are more ethical and translate better to humans. There are many differences in biology, chemistry and physiology when testing on animals.
Selective Formulation- using previously tested ingredients eliminates the need to test them again, works well when making a new line of products.
Human Cultures- Epiderm and EpiSkin are human skin cells that are grown in a test tube. They mimic human skin. Testing cosmetics on these is much better than rabbits.
Corrositex- another test tube option that is easy to read the results by color change.
EpiOcular- skin cells created to mimic the eye cornea, replaces rabbit eye irritant test.
Physiological chip- 1 x 1 inch square of cells that mimic the complex functions of the human body. It can test harmful and beneficial effects of drugs.
Cellular tests- measures white bloog cell response to chemicals

Monday, April 23, 2007

Annotation #2

Companies that DO test on animals

These are major companies that test on animals. These companies are being regulated by the Food and Drug Administration end Environmental Protection Agency.

Arm & Hammer, Clairol (Aussie, Herbal Essences) Clorox, Colgate, Cover Girl, Dial Co., Johnson & Johnson, L'Oreal, Max Factor, New Dana Perfumes, Olay Co, Oral B, Sally Hansen, Suave